HR.1017 - Veterans Information Security Improvement Act

[congressional bills 114th congress]
[from the u.s. government printing office]
[h.r. 1017 introduced in house (ih)]

114th congress
  1st session
                                h. r. 1017

   to improve the information security of the department of veterans 
  affairs by directing the secretary of veterans affairs to carry out 
 certain actions to improve the transparency and the governance of the 
information security program of the department, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    in the house of representatives

                           february 20, 2015

mrs. walorski introduced the following bill; which was referred to the 
                     committee on veterans' affairs

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 a bill


 
   to improve the information security of the department of veterans 
  affairs by directing the secretary of veterans affairs to carry out 
 certain actions to improve the transparency and the governance of the 
information security program of the department, and for other purposes.

    be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives of the 
united states of america in congress assembled,

section 1. short title; table of contents.

    (a) short title.--this act may be cited as the ``veterans 
information security improvement act''.
    (b) table of contents.--the table of contents for this act is as 
follows:

sec. 1. short title; table of contents.
sec. 2. governance of information security program of department of 
                            veterans affairs.
sec. 3. security of critical network infrastructure, including domain 
                            controller, of department of veterans 
                            affairs.
sec. 4. security of computers and servers of department of veterans 
                            affairs.
sec. 5. upgrade or phase-out of unsupported or outdated operating 
                            systems.
sec. 6. security of web applications from vital vulnerabilities.
sec. 7. security of the vista system.
sec. 8. report on compliance with information security requirements and 
                            best practices.
sec. 9. reports on implementation.
sec. 10. application.
sec. 11. definitions.

sec. 2. governance of information security program of department of 
              veterans affairs.

    (a) requirements for certain officials and staff.--
            (1) in general.--subchapter iii of chapter 57 of title 38, 
        united states code, is amended by inserting after section 5723 
        the following new section:
``sec. 5723a. governance of information security program
    ``(a) in general.--the secretary shall improve the transparency and 
the coordination of the information security program of the department 
in accordance with this section.
    ``(b) office of information and technology.--(1) the secretary 
shall ensure that the assistant secretary for information and 
technology, as the chief information officer of the department, 
possesses--
            ``(a) the appropriate education, validated experience, and 
        capabilities in the management of information technology 
        organizations;
            ``(b) an industry recognized certification in information 
        security and cyber security defense; and
            ``(c) demonstrated, sound technical and business 
        capabilities.
    ``(2) the secretary shall ensure that the staff of the office of 
information and technology who perform security functions, including 
the assessment and analysis of risk, security auditing, security 
operations, and security engineering, are assigned to the office of 
information security.
    ``(3) the secretary shall ensure that subordinate offices of the 
office of information and technology, in coordination with the head of 
the office of information security, maintain appropriate information 
security functions within each such office to--
            ``(a) incorporate secure software assurance processes into 
        the software development lifecycle for all software development 
        activities;
            ``(b) validate that each third-party developed software 
        used in any information system of the department meets the 
        standards of the national institute of standards and technology 
        with respect to security, safety, reliability, functionality 
        and extensibility;
            ``(c) maintain established information security baseline 
        controls for such information systems, and immediately 
        remediate systems determined to be out of compliance with 
        established baseline controls to the maximum extent possible;
            ``(d) ensure that the security architecture of the 
        department is documented and fully integrated into the overall 
        enterprise architecture strategy of the department;
            ``(e) deploy and maintain centralized security monitoring 
        capabilities capable of detecting and alerting upon security 
        events within the environment;
            ``(f) design and deploy an effective incident response 
        capability including retention of industry experts in 
        forensics, threat intelligence, and malware analysis;
            ``(g) develop and implement a policy that restricts the 
        development of new data warehouses and data marts holding 
        sensitive personal information of veterans and reduces the 
        number of data marts holding such information;
            ``(h) protect sensitive department and veterans information 
        to a defined data classification policy in accordance with 
        governance and compliance requirements, leveraging digital 
        signature (authenticity and integrity) and digital rights 
        management (confidentiality, authorization and audit) 
        technology where appropriate; and
            ``(i) develop working relationships with other federal 
        departments whose it security efforts intersect in any way with 
        the department.
    ``(c) office of information security.--(1) the secretary shall 
ensure that the head of the office of information security possesses--
            ``(a) the appropriate education and validated experience 
        with respect to information security;
            ``(b) an industry recognized certification in cyber 
        security defense;
            ``(c) demonstrated, sound technical and business 
        capabilities; and
            ``(d) other relevant experience.
    ``(2) the secretary shall ensure that all of the field staff of the 
office of information security, including relevant staff of the office 
of information technology, whose primary responsibility is the 
protection of personally identifiable information of veterans maintain 
current information security training and possess a certain level of 
information security, cyber security defense, and technical 
capabilities and certifications as appropriate.''.
            (2) clerical amendment.--the table of sections at the 
        beginning of such chapter is amended by inserting after the 
        item relating to section 5723 the following new item:

``5723a. governance of information security program.''.
    (b) definitions.--section 5721 of title 38, united states code, is 
amended by adding at the end the following new paragraphs:
            ``(24) data mart.--the term `data mart' means a subset of a 
        data warehouse that contains information for a specific 
        department or entity of an organization rather than the entire 
        organization.
            ``(25) data warehouse.--the term `data warehouse' means a 
        collection of data designed to support management 
        decisionmaking that contains a wide variety of data that 
        present a coherent picture of business conditions for an entire 
        organization at a single point in time and whose development 
        includes the development of systems to extract data from 
        operating systems plus installation of a warehouse database 
        system that provides managers flexible access to the data.''.

sec. 3. security of critical network infrastructure, including domain 
              controller, of department of veterans affairs.

    (a) in general.--not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary of veterans affairs shall ensure 
the security and safeguard of the network infrastructure of the 
department of veterans affairs.
    (b) actions required.--in carrying out subsection (a), the 
secretary shall carry out the following preventive actions:
            (1) maintain the awareness and complete physical and 
        logical control of the critical network infrastructure, 
        including routers, switches, domain naming systems, firewalls, 
        load balancers, proxy devices, authentication services, 
        telecommunications, domain controllers, and any device that is 
        part of the trusted internet connection system.
            (2) provide special security configurations for protecting 
        critical infrastructure devices and services.
            (3) implement policies and security measures that minimize 
        the threats to critical infrastructure devices and services.
            (4) ensure that critical infrastructure devices and 
        services, including the domain controller settings, are in 
        compliance with the server security plan of the department 
        under the department of veterans affairs handbook 6500.
            (5) establish access rights, permissions, and multifactor 
        authentication for the critical infrastructure devices and 
        services, including the domain controller, for specific users 
        or groups of users.
            (6) ensure that proper physical security measures are taken 
        to safeguard the critical infrastructure devices and services 
        and limit physical access to such location to a limited number 
        of authorized individuals.
            (7) limit the access from network connections to critical 
        infrastructure devices and services and only configure services 
        and software that are needed by the devices and services.
            (8) disable or delete any service or software from critical 
        infrastructure devices and services that is unnecessary.
            (9) where feasible, secure critical infrastructure devices 
        and services with host-based and networked-based security 
        controls and limit the number of ports that are opened between 
        critical infrastructure devices and services, including any 
        device requesting access to network resources and services.
            (10) ensure that for any device to access and communicate 
        with critical infrastructure devices and services within the 
        domain, the authentication traffic has to be signed and 
        encrypted.
            (11) limit the administrator account from accessing 
        critical infrastructure devices and services, including domain 
        controllers, throughout the network and use such account only 
        for emergencies.
            (12) restrict remote access to local administrator accounts 
        and use firewall rules to restrict lateral movement on the 
        network.
            (13) employ enterprise-wide content centric security or 
        digital rights management to encrypt, analyze and monitor 
        sensitive documents and information after it leaves a content 
        management system.
    (c) additional actions required.--in carrying out subsection (a), 
the secretary shall carry out the following actions to detect a network 
intrusion:
            (1) demonstrate the applicability of the nist risk 
        management framework in the selection, implementation, 
        assessment, and ongoing monitoring of privacy controls deployed 
        in federal information systems, programs, and organizations.
            (2) ensure that network and host based intrusion detection 
        systems (nids/hids) are deployed and properly configured on 
        high-risk systems and areas of the network.
            (3) ensure that proper auditing and event logging are 
        configured into servers, user systems, firewalls, networking 
        devices, applications, and domain controllers.
            (4) ensure that audit and event logs are forwarded and 
        collected in a central repository for storage and analysis.
            (5) conduct regular audits and testing of the backups and 
        restore events of the critical infrastructure devices and 
        services.
            (6) conduct regular formal penetration testing to test for 
        potential security weaknesses and resolve such weaknesses by 
        not later than seven days after identifying such weaknesses.
            (7) deploy proper log review capabilities including 
        automated and manual methods such as via a security information 
        and event monitoring (siem) solution able to detect, at a 
        minimum--
                    (a) events tied to known signatures such as common 
                malware and exploits;
                    (b) network traffic attempting to access known 
                malicious ip addresses, urls, or domains;
                    (c) changes in network traffic behavior such as 
                unexpected traffic over abnormal ports;
                    (d) application level events such as attempted 
                injection attacks;
                    (e) abnormal use of user, application, and 
                privileged accounts; and
                    (f) attempted or successful movement of sensitive 
                data in any unapproved, unencrypted manner.
    (d) additional actions required.--if a network intrusion is 
detected, in carrying out subsection (a), the secretary shall carry out 
the following responsive actions:
            (1) ensure that events identified through the security 
        monitoring process are properly investigated and resolved 
        through a defined incident response process staffed by trained 
        responders supplemented by external industry experts retained 
        as necessary with capabilities such as--
                    (a) analysis of events generated by monitoring 
                solutions;
                    (b) pre-planned responses to common attack types 
                such as defacement, denial of service, malware 
                outbreaks, and advanced persistent threat (apt) level 
                threats;
                    (c) reverse engineering of attack methods, 
                exploits, and malware;
                    (d) understanding of common hacking techniques such 
                as initial infiltration, expansion, persistence, and 
                exfiltration, as well as the forensic and analysis 
                methods to detect each of these stages; and
                    (e) planned and exercised methods for network 
                triage including isolation of individual systems or 
                entire network segments, mass password resets, and 
                deployment of emergency firewall or network changes 
                meant to limit internet connectivity to only critical 
                services.
            (2) if the secretary determines that any critical network 
        infrastructure device or service has been compromised, restore 
        the device or service to the last known noncompromised state 
        and determine the cause of the compromise.
            (3) if the secretary determines that compromised devices or 
        services must be used for a limited time, conduct such use in 
        accordance with the guidance established by the national 
        security agency under the document titled ``information 
        assurance guidance for operating on a compromised network'', or 
        successor document.
    (e) certification.--not later than 30 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary shall submit to the congressional 
veterans committees written certification that the secretary has 
commenced each action described in subsections (b), (c), and (d).

sec. 4. security of computers and servers of department of veterans 
              affairs.

    (a) in general.--the secretary shall ensure the security of each 
general purpose computer and server of the department.
    (b) actions required.--in carrying out subsection (a), the 
secretary shall carry out the following actions:
            (1) formalize and enforce a department-wide process to 
        monitor software installed on general purpose computers and 
        servers of the department, prevent the unauthorized 
        installation of software, and remove any unauthorized software 
        that has been installed.
            (2) not later than 45 days after the date of the enactment 
        of this act, implement automated patching tools and processes 
        that ensure that security patches are installed for any 
        software or operating system on a computer by not later than 48 
        hours after the patch is made available.
            (3) employ automated tools to continuously monitor general 
        purpose computers, servers, and mobile devices for active, up-
        to-date anti-malware protection with antivirus, antispyware, 
        personal firewalls, and host-based intrusion prevention system 
        functionality.
            (4) centralize oversight and control to effectively 
        administer patch management processes (but the responsibility 
        for testing and applying patches to specific systems may be 
        decentralized to the component level).
            (5) perform regular scans of general purpose computers and 
        servers to discover security vulnerabilities and log the 
        results of such scans.
            (6) perform a patch-focused risk assessment to evaluate 
        each system, database, and general purpose computer for 
        threats, vulnerabilities, and its criticality to the mission of 
        the department.
            (7) if the secretary determines any security 
        vulnerability--
                    (a) develop a test for the vulnerability and 
                determine the cause of the vulnerability;
                    (b) address the vulnerability, including by 
                patching, implementing a compensating control, or 
                documenting and accepting a reasonable business risk 
                (in accordance with industry accepted best practices) 
                with respect to the vulnerability; and
                    (c) perform a post remediation scan to verify that 
                the vulnerability was so addressed.
            (8) establish and ensure the use of standard, secure 
        configurations of each operating system in use on the computers 
        of the department.
            (9) employ system-scanning tools that check computers daily 
        for software version, patch levels, and configuration files.
            (10) deploy a security content automation protocol tool 
        that is validated by the national institute of standards and 
        technology to use specific standards to enable automated 
        vulnerability management, measurement, and policy compliance 
        evaluation.
            (11) standardize policies, procedures, and tools for 
        effective patch management, including by assigning roles and 
        responsibilities, performing risk assessments, and testing 
        patches.
            (12) test each patch against all system configurations of 
        the department in a test environment to determine any effect on 
        the network before deploying the patch to the affected systems 
        and monitor the status of the patches after deployment.
            (13) establish and maintain an inventory of all hardware 
        equipment, software packages, services, and other technologies 
        installed and used by the department for patch management.
            (14) establish a policy for security fixes that is clearly 
        communicated to computer users to ensure that the users are 
        aware of--
                    (a) the versions of software or operating systems 
                that are supported with respect to security fixes; and
                    (b) when software, operating systems, or other 
                products are scheduled to no longer be maintained.
            (15) ensure that--
                    (a) the staff or contractors of the department who 
                are involved in patch management have the skills and 
                knowledge needed to perform the responsibilities 
                relating to such management; and
                    (b) system administrators are trained in 
                identifying new patches and vulnerabilities.
    (c) certification.--not later than 30 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary shall submit to the congressional 
veterans committees written certification that the secretary has 
commenced each action described in subsection (b).

sec. 5. upgrade or phase-out of unsupported or outdated operating 
              systems.

    (a) in general.--not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary shall ensure that the secretary 
upgrades or phases out outdated or unsupported operating systems to 
protect computers of the department from harmful viruses, spyware, and 
other malicious software that could affect the confidentiality of 
sensitive personal information of veterans.
    (b) actions required.--in carrying out subsection (a), the 
secretary shall carry out the following activities:
            (1) establish a plan for phasing out outdated or 
        unsupported operating systems used by the department.
            (2) establish a policy to ensure that outdated and 
        unsupported operating systems used by the department do not 
        connect to the network of the department by not later than 15 
        days after the date on which such operating systems are so 
        outdated or unsupported, as determined appropriate by the 
        secretary.
            (3) establish a configuration management process to ensure 
        that--
                    (a) a secure image that is regularly updated is 
                used to build all new computers used by the department; 
                and
                    (b) any computer used by the department that 
                becomes compromised is re-imaged using such image.
            (4) implement applicable operating systems based on 
        security guidance identified by the information assurance 
        directorate of the national security agency.
            (5) appropriately configure and test required software that 
        was designed to be used on older operating systems to ensure 
        the software is usable on a new operating system used by the 
        department.
            (6) limit administrative privileges to very few users who 
        have both the appropriate knowledge and business need to modify 
        the configuration of the operating system.
            (7) until the date on which an unsupported operating system 
        is replaced, if a computer uses such operating system, disable 
        web browser plug-ins, use a hardware firewall, and if 
        practicable, disconnect the computer from the network and do 
        not use the computer to access the internet.
            (8) deploy a software inventory tool to cover each of the 
        operating systems in use by the department to track--
                    (a) the type of such operating systems being used 
                by the department; and
                    (b) with respect to each computer of the 
                department--
                            (i) the type of operating system installed 
                        and the version number and patch level of such 
                        operating system; and
                            (ii) the software being used on such 
                        operating system.
            (9) regularly use file integrity checking tools to check 
        any changes to critical operating systems, services, and 
        configuration files.
    (c) certification.--not later than 30 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary shall submit to the congressional 
veterans committees written certification that the secretary has 
commenced each action described in subsection (b).

sec. 6. security of web applications from vital vulnerabilities.

    (a) in general.--the secretary shall ensure that web applications 
used by the department are secure from vulnerabilities that could 
affect the confidentiality of sensitive personal information of 
veterans.
    (b) actions required.--in carrying out subsection (a), the 
secretary shall carry out the following activities:
            (1) not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment 
        of this act, develop a plan, including required actions and 
        milestones, to fully remediate all security vulnerabilities 
        described in subsection (a) that exist as of the date of the 
        enactment of this act.
            (2) develop detailed guidance for remediating each critical 
        security vulnerability.
            (3) use best practices and lessons learned, including such 
        practices and lessons described by the national institute of 
        standards and technology and the open web application security 
        project, to address the security vulnerabilities of web 
        applications.
            (4) limit the permissions on the database logon used by web 
        applications to only what is needed to reduce the effectiveness 
        of any attack that exploits bugs in the application.
            (5) provide to web application developers--
                    (a) thorough application development guidance to 
                ensure that new applications are designed by taking 
                into account security; and
                    (b) detailed guidance on testing existing web 
                applications for security vulnerabilities, including 
                buffer overflows and cross-site scripting.
            (6) configure administrative passwords to be--
                    (a) complex and consist only of strings of letters, 
                numbers, and characters that do not form a recognizable 
                word; and
                    (b) changed every 90 days, in accordance with 
                industry best practices.
            (7) with respect to passwords used in connection with web 
        applications, store the passwords for each system of the 
        department only in a well-hashed or encrypted format.
            (8) implement two-factor authentication technology 
        requirements throughout the department.
            (9) if vulnerabilities in a web application are found, 
        administer a full-source code review to determine if the 
        vulnerabilities exist elsewhere within the code of the 
        application.
            (10) periodically review user access to networks and web 
        applications to identify unnecessary, inactive, or terminated 
        user accounts.
            (11) establish a single set of strong authentication and 
        session management controls that meet all the authentication 
        and session management requirements defined in the application 
        security verification standard of the open web application 
        security project.
            (12) implement visibility and attribution measures to 
        improve the process, architecture, and technical capabilities 
        of the department to monitor web applications used on the 
        networks and computers of the department to detect attack 
        attempts, locate points of entry, identify already compromised 
        machines, interrupt activities of infiltrated attackers, and 
        gain information about the sources of an attack.
    (c) certification.--not later than 30 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary shall submit to the congressional 
veterans committees written certification that the secretary has 
commenced each action described in subsection (b).

sec. 7. security of the vista system.

    (a) in general.--not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary shall ensure that the vista system 
is secure from vulnerabilities that could affect the confidentiality of 
sensitive personal information of veterans.
    (b) actions required.--in carrying out subsection (a), the 
secretary shall carry out the following activities:
            (1) develop a remedial action plan to address the 
        approaches to interoperability--
                    (a) between multiple vista systems; and
                    (b) between the vista system and external systems 
                and software.
            (2) update the policy, procedures, and governance of the 
        department with respect to system-to-system integration where 
        users log on to external systems and then automatically connect 
        to the vista system and interact.
            (3) provide authentication for the machine-to-machine 
        broker so that the vista system ``listener'' verifies the 
        identity of the calling system.
            (4) establish and implement policy with respect to the 
        authentication of external systems attempting to connect to the 
        vista system and criteria by which user authentication must be 
        accomplished to ensure all applications that connect to the 
        vista system convey accurate user information.
            (5) establish a business requirement that system-to-system 
        integration connectivity across the wide-area network must 
        consist of encrypted communication and require external systems 
        to securely identify themselves, or for the vista system to 
        securely identify external systems that attempt to connect to 
        the system.
            (6) establish a business requirement that external systems 
        communicate accurate user information to the vista system 
        relating to actions initiated by actual individuals and 
        facilitate the revocation of access by the vista system 
        relative to specific users or external systems attempting to 
        connect.
            (7) implement monthly project design reviews of the 
        integration between systems and web applications to ensure that 
        the effectiveness of the existing controls is sustained.
            (8) assess the potential compromise to non-department 
        networks that are interconnected with the network of the 
        department, including the networks of the department of defense 
        and the department of health and human services.
            (9) ensure that, in the near-term, software development for 
        the vista system develops the critical enhancements and fixes 
        to the system that are necessary to ensure compliance with 
        changes to patient enrollment.
            (10) ensure that all systems of the department have been 
        given the ``authority to operate'' designation and have been 
        properly certified by meeting all requirements, including a 
        comprehensive assessment of management, operational, and 
        technical security controls, to become operational, and 
        restrict the use of waivers.
    (c) certification.--not later than 30 days after the date of the 
enactment of this act, the secretary shall submit to the congressional 
veterans committees written certification that the secretary has 
commenced each action described in subsection (b).

sec. 8. report on compliance with information security requirements and 
              best practices.

    not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this act, 
the secretary of veterans affairs shall submit to the congressional 
veterans committees the following:
            (1) written certification that the secretary is taking 
        every action required to comply with--
                    (a) subchapter iii of chapter 57 of title 38, 
                united states code;
                    (b) subchapter iii of chapter 35 of title 44, 
                united states code;
                    (c) special publications 800-53 and 800-111 of the 
                national institute of standards and technology, 
                including with respect to encrypting databases;
                    (d) applicable memoranda issued by the director of 
                management and budget regarding protecting personally 
                identifiable information and continuous monitoring; and
                    (e) any other relevant law or regulation regarding 
                the information security of the department of veterans 
                affairs.
            (2) how the secretary is using and implementing the 
        principles and best practices regarding improving information 
        security, including with respect to such principles and 
        practices described in the document titled ``framework for 
        improving critical infrastructure cybersecurity'' of the 
        national institute of standards and technology.

sec. 9. reports on implementation.

    (a) biannual reports.--
            (1) in general.--not later than 180 days after the date of 
        the enactment of this act, and every 180-day period thereafter, 
        the secretary shall submit to the congressional veterans 
        committees a report on the implementation of this act, 
        including the amendments made by this act.
            (2) matters included.--each report under subsection (a) 
        shall include the following:
                    (a) a description of the actions taken by the 
                secretary to implement and comply with sections 2 
                through 7.
                    (b) a timeline and project plan, both short-term 
                and long-term, for implementing each of sections 2 
                through 7 and assigning roles and responsibilities 
                under such plan.
                    (c) performance measures, defined metrics, and 
                benchmarks to measure the results of the secretary in 
                carrying out remediation efforts under sections 2 
                through 7.
                    (d) a description of the best practices and lessons 
                learned by the secretary in carrying out sections 2 
                through 7.
                    (e) the progress made by the secretary during each 
                month covered by the report with respect to reducing 
                the total number of outdated operating systems, web 
                application vulnerabilities, critical security 
                vulnerabilities, and other matters covered by sections 
                2 through 7.
                    (f) an appendix containing detailed reports of the 
                department, including the enterprise information 
                technology dashboard and reports regarding security 
                vulnerabilities, operating system trends, and web 
                applications.
    (b) annual inspector general report.--the inspector general of the 
department of veterans affairs shall submit to the congressional 
veterans committees an annual report that includes a comprehensive 
assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the implementation by 
the secretary of veterans affairs of sections 2 through 7, including 
the amendments made by this act.
    (c) monthly reports.--on a monthly basis, the secretary shall 
submit to the congressional veterans committees reports on security 
vulnerabilities discovered pursuant to the actions taken under section 
4(b)(5).

sec. 10. application.

    in carrying out this act, including the amendments made by this 
act, the secretary of veterans affairs may substitute a new technology 
or process relating to information security for a specific technology 
or process relating to information security described in this act, 
including the amendments made by this act, if the secretary determines 
that such new technology or process--
            (1) is a successor to the specific technology or process 
        described in this act, including the amendments made by this 
        act; and
            (2) provides a greater amount of information security than 
        would be provided if the secretary did not make such 
        substitution.

sec. 11. definitions.

    in this act:
            (1) the term ``authority to operate'' means the official 
        management decision given by a senior official of the 
        department to authorize operation of an information system and 
        to explicitly accept the risk to the operations of the 
        department (including with respect to the mission, functions, 
        image, or reputation of the department), the assets and 
        individuals of the department, other elements of the federal 
        government, and the united states based on the implementation 
        of an agreed-upon set of security controls.
            (2) the term ``confidentiality'' has the meaning given that 
        term in section 5727 of title 38, united states code.
            (3) the term ``congressional veterans committees'' means 
        the committees on veterans' affairs of the house of 
        representatives and the senate.
            (4) the term ``critical network infrastructure'' means 
        information technology hardware that provides--
                    (a) vital network services to the department that 
                is vital to carrying out the mission of the department; 
                and
                    (b) communications, security, transportation, 
                access, and authentication services and capabilities.
            (5) the term ``domain controller'' means a server that 
        responds to security authentication requests responsible for 
        allowing host access to domain resources by authenticating 
        users, sorting user account information, and enforcing security 
        policy.
            (6) the term ``general purpose computer'' means a computer 
        that, given the appropriate application and required time, 
        should be able to perform most common computing tasks. such 
        term includes personal computers, including desktops, 
        notebooks, smart phones, and tablets.
            (7) the term ``image'' means a standard set of software 
        (including the operating system and other software) that is 
        installed on a computer.
            (8) the term ``information security'' has the meaning given 
        that term in section 5727 of title 38, united states code.
            (9) the term ``information system'' has the meaning given 
        that term in section 5727 of title 38, united states code.
            (10) the term ``sensitive personal information'' has the 
        meaning given that term in section 5727 of title 38, united 
        states code.
            (11) the term ``vista system'' means the veterans health 
        information systems and technology architecture of the 
        department of veterans affairs that allows for an integrated 
        inpatient and outpatient electronic health record for patients 
        and provides administrative tools to employees of the 
        department.
            (12) the term ``web application'' means an application in 
        which all or some parts of the software are downloaded from the 
        internet each time the software is accessed, including web 
        browser-based software that run within a web browser, desktop 
        software that does not use a web browser, and mobile software 
        that accesses the internet for additional information.
            (13) the term ``well-hashed'' means the process of using a 
        mathematical algorithm against data to produce a numeric value 
        that is representative of that data.
                                 
Govtrack Data provided by Govtrack.us.