S.255 - Fair Act

[congressional bills 114th congress]
[from the u.s. government printing office]
[s. 255 introduced in senate (is)]

114th congress
  1st session
                                 s. 255

to restore the integrity of the fifth amendment to the constitution of 
               the united states, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   in the senate of the united states

                            january 26, 2015

   mr. paul introduced the following bill; which was read twice and 
               referred to the committee on the judiciary

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 a bill


 
to restore the integrity of the fifth amendment to the constitution of 
               the united states, and for other purposes.

    be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives of the 
united states of america in congress assembled,

section 1. short title.

    this act may be cited as the ``fifth amendment integrity 
restoration act of 2015'' or the ``fair act''.

sec. 2. civil forfeiture proceedings.

    section 983 of title 18, united states code, is amended--
            (1) in subsection (b)(2)(a)--
                    (a) by striking ``, and the property subject to 
                forfeiture is real property that is being used by the 
                person as a primary residence,''; and
                    (b) by striking ``, at the request of the person, 
                shall insure'' and insert ``shall ensure'';
            (2) in subsection (c)--
                    (a) in paragraph (1), by striking ``a preponderance 
                of the evidence'' and inserting ``clear and convincing 
                evidence'';
                    (b) in paragraph (2), by striking ``a preponderance 
                of the evidence'' and inserting ``clear and convincing 
                evidence''; and
                    (c) by striking paragraph (3) and inserting the 
                following:
            ``(3) if the government's theory of forfeiture is that the 
        property was used to commit or facilitate the commission of a 
        criminal offense, or was involved in the commission of a 
        criminal offense, the government shall establish, by clear and 
        convincing evidence, that--
                    ``(a) there was a substantial connection between 
                the property and the offense; and
                    ``(b) the owner of any interest in the seized 
                property--
                            ``(i) used the property with intent to 
                        facilitate the offense; or
                            ``(ii) knowingly consented or was willfully 
                        blind to the use of the property by another in 
                        connection with the offense.''; and
            (3) in subsection (d)(2)(a), by striking ``an owner who'' 
        and all that follows through ``upon learning'' and inserting 
        ``an owner who, upon learning''.

sec. 3. disposition of forfeited property.

    (a) revisions to controlled substances act.--section 511(e) of the 
controlled substances act (21 u.s.c. 881(e)) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (1)--
                    (a) in the matter preceding subparagraph (a), by 
                striking ``civilly or'';
                    (b) by striking subparagraph (a); and
                    (c) by redesignating subparagraphs (b) through (e) 
                as subparagraphs (a) through (d), respectively;
            (2) in paragraph (2)--
                    (a) in subparagraph (a), in the matter preceding 
                clause (i), by striking ``subparagraph (b) of paragraph 
                (1)'' and inserting ``paragraph (1)(a)''; and
                    (b) in subparagraph (b), by striking ``accordance 
                with section 524(c) of title 28,'' and inserting ``the 
                general fund of the treasury of the united states'';
            (3) by striking paragraph (3);
            (4) by redesignating paragraph (4) as paragraph (3); and
            (5) in paragraph (3), as redesignated--
                    (a) in subparagraph (a), by striking ``paragraph 
                (1)(b)'' and inserting ``paragraph (1)(a)''; and
                    (b) in subparagraph (b), in the matter preceding 
                clause (i), by striking ``paragraph (1)(b) that is 
                civilly or'' and inserting paragraph ``(1)(a) that 
                is''.
    (b) revisions to title 18.--chapter 46 of title 18, united states 
code, is amended--
            (1) in section 981(e)--
                    (a) by striking ``is authorized'' and all that 
                follows through ``or forfeiture of the property;'' and 
                inserting ``shall forward to the treasurer of the 
                united states any proceeds of property forfeited 
                pursuant to this section for deposit in the general 
                fund of the treasury or transfer such property on such 
                terms and conditions as such officer may determine--'';
                    (b) by redesignating paragraphs (3), (4), (5), (6), 
                and (7) as paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), and (5), 
                respectively; and
                    (c) in the matter following paragraph (5), as so 
                redesignated--
                            (i) by striking the first, second, third, 
                        sixth, and eighth sentences; and
                            (ii) by striking ``paragraphs (3), (4), and 
                        (5)'' and inserting ``paragraphs (1), (2), and 
                        (3)''; and
            (2) in section 983(g)--
                    (a) in paragraph (3), by striking ``grossly''; and
                    (b) in paragraph (4), by striking ``grossly''.
    (c) tariff act of 1930.--the tariff act of 1930 (19 u.s.c. 1304 et 
seq.) is amended--
            (1) in section 613a(a) (19 u.s.c. 1613b(a))--
                    (a) in paragraph (1)--
                            (i) in subparagraph (d), by inserting 
                        ``and'' after the semicolon;
                            (ii) in subparagraph (e), by striking ``; 
                        and'' and inserting a period; and
                            (iii) by striking subparagraph (f); and
                    (b) in paragraph (2)--
                            (i) by striking ``(a) any payment'' and 
                        inserting ``any payment''; and
                            (ii) by striking subparagraph (b); and
            (2) in section 616 (19 u.s.c. 1616a)--
                    (a) in the section heading, by striking ``transfer 
                of forfeited property'' and inserting ``dismissal in 
                favor of forfeiture under state law'';
                    (b) in subsection (a), by striking ``(a) the 
                secretary'' and inserting ``the secretary''; and
                    (c) by striking subsections (b) through (d).
    (d) title 31.--section 9703 of title 31, united states code, is 
amended--
            (1) in subsection (a)(1)--
                    (a) by striking subparagraph (g); and
                    (b) by redesignating subparagraphs (h) through (j) 
                as subparagraphs (g) through (i), respectively; and
            (2) in subsection (b)--
                    (a) by striking paragraphs (2) and (4); and
                    (b) by redesignating paragraphs (3) and (5) as 
                paragraphs (2) and (3), respectively.

sec. 4. department of justice assets forfeiture fund deposits.

    section 524(c)(4) of title 28, united states code, is amended--
            (1) by striking subparagraphs (a) and (b); and
            (2) by redesignating subparagraphs (c) and (d) as 
        subparagraphs (a) and (b), respectively.

sec. 5. structuring transactions to evade reporting requirement 
              prohibited.

    (a) amendments to title 31.--section 5324 of title 31, united 
states code, is amended--
            (1) in subsection (a)--
                    (a) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by 
                inserting ``knowingly'' after ``public law 91-508''; 
                and
                    (b) in paragraph (3), by inserting ``of funds not 
                derived from a legitimate source'' after ``any 
                transaction'';
            (2) in subsection (b), in the matter preceding paragraph 
        (1), by inserting ``knowingly'' after ``such section''; and
            (3) in subsection (c), in the matter preceding paragraph 
        (1), by inserting ``knowingly'' after ``section 5316''.
    (b) probable cause hearing in connection with property seizures 
relating to certain monetary instruments transactions.--
            (1) amendment.--section 5317 of title 31, united states 
        code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(d) probable cause hearing in connection with property seizures 
relating to certain monetary instruments transactions.--
            ``(1) in general.--not later than 14 days after the date on 
        which notice is provided under paragraph (2)--
                    ``(a) a court of competent jurisdiction shall 
                conduct a hearing on any property seized or restrained 
                under subsection (c)(2) with respect to an alleged 
                violation of section 5324; and
                    ``(b) any property described in subparagraph (a) 
                shall be returned unless the court finds that there is 
                probable cause to believe that there is a violation of 
                section 5324 involving the property.
            ``(2) notice.--each person from whom property is seized or 
        restrained under subsection (c)(2) with respect to an alleged 
        violation of section 5324 shall be notified of the right of the 
        person to a hearing under paragraph (1).''.
            (2) applicability.--the amendment made by paragraph (1) 
        shall apply to property seized or restrained after the date of 
        enactment of this act.

sec. 6. proportionality.

    section 983(g)(2) of title 18, united states code, is amended to 
read as follows:
            ``(2) in making this determination, the court shall 
        consider such factors as--
                    ``(a) the seriousness of the offense;
                    ``(b) the extent of the nexus of the property to 
                the offense;
                    ``(c) the range of sentences available for the 
                offense giving rise to forfeiture;
                    ``(d) the fair market value of the property; and
                    ``(e) the hardship to the property owner and 
                dependents.''.

sec. 7. reporting requirements.

    section 524(c)(6)(i) of title 28, united states code, is amended by 
inserting ``from each type of forfeiture, and specifically identifying 
which funds were obtained from including criminal forfeitures and which 
were obtained from civil forfeitures,'' after ``deposits''.

sec. 8. applicability.

    the amendments made by this act shall apply to--
            (1) any civil forfeiture proceeding pending on or filed on 
        or after the date of enactment of this act; and
            (2) any amounts received from the forfeiture of property on 
        or after the date of enactment of this act.
                                 
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